Commander Rezanov
Commander's epoch Commander Castille roses Time and Commander Meetings at Commander's

World tour

§ Rezanov’s Mission to Japan

Having left Petropavlovsk on August 27, 1804 , the “Hope” headed for the southwest. Close of the Kuril isles the seamen admired a prolonged circuit of majestic, frequently “smoking” volcanoes.

On September 12 the whole gale, proceeding twelve days, began. Only in the Japanese sea the weather became silent, and the sailing continued with an easy favorable wind. The coast of the northern Japan came in sight on September 27. At the ship the large celebration was held: the envoy distributed to silver medals to all participants of round-the-world travel. In the speech he told: “The Russians! Having gone all round, at last, we find ourselves in Japanese waters! Love to Fatherland, courage, contempt of dangers is the essence of features representing Russian sea-farers; essence of virtues, so peculiar to all Russians. You, skilled travelers, still possess the gratitude of our fellow-countrymen! You have already gained the glory that the most envious society will be unable to deprive of you ! You are, the worthy employees of mine, in prospect of another worthy feat and opening of new resources! And you, fearless creatures of sea irregulars, admire with success of zealous your assistance! Let’s connect hearts and souls of ours to execution of the monarch’s will, the monarch, who sent us and is so much adored by us! So, let the gratitude to the most august Monarch of ours inspire all our feelings. The day this, Friends of mine, is famous to our fatherland ; but it will be even more famous that its sons for the first time appeared in the space of Japanese empire, and victorious flag of Russia gets known to Nagasaki waters. Being authorized from our great sovereign to be the witness of the feats of yours, I felt so flattered to both share all works and dangers with you, and solemnly express that gratitude to you, which in heart of our fatherland expects all of us. Celebrating in Japanese waters the day of His Imperial Highness crowning, this day is done by me memorable for your merits. Gaze upon the image of the great sovereign here, accept in him recompense of yours and be blessed with that distinctions that were acquired by your boundless works and diligence. Remember always, that it even more obliges you to a strict storage of the debt, which the ancestors of yours are glorious for, and in delight of glory bless a reign, in which merits of every citizen and in the most remote limits of the world are never forgotten before the sovereign throne!”

They headed to a southwest. The sea maps, which the expedition used, were made absolutely incorrectly, and the coast of the Japanese archipelago actually appeared much to the west. Since morning of September 26 the whole gale began. By four hours p. m. it has turned to become so-called “typhoon”, the most severe hurricane so typical for the Japanese and Chinese waters during an autumn equinox and in the beginning of October.

The “Hope” was near to the Japanese coast. The wind gradually freshened. Squalls sprang up. They became stronger and stronger. Kruzenstern ordered to remove all normal sails and to put special ones ( slanting sails of the triangular form) for storm. By noon the wind became so intensified, that the vast waves flooded the ship both from a prow and through a board and sank rooms of a vessel… At last, storm sails were broken, and it was impossible to use any sails at all. A rumble of a wind, flows of pouring water, howling of waves running from both boards, all this seemed to turn in the air rushed with the whirlwind. The hatches were tightly caulked, people inhabiting decks, lost light and air. Inside the ship, as well as everywhere, it was stuffy and wet from poured water that penetrated even through caulked hatches.

The hurricane amplified… The boiling ocean raged, gigantic mountains of waves promptly fell into open wide masses of the ocean. Above the waves, there were the clouds of water dust. Rocking was awful. It was impossible to stay in cabins. The things attached strongly to walls and to a floor came off. From a noise of the storm it was impossible to understand, whether the wind hoots or the thunder rattles. The stern of the ship was damaged, the ship itself was thrown as a chip.

At eight o’clock in the evening waves broke illuminators in stern cabins, half filled them with water; it was necessary to shut hatches and gangways in a low deck which began to be filled with water.

Hurricane pulled out the ship, as if it wanted to destroy a vessel. Sailors crowded on quarterdecks, holding for stretched taut ropes. Krusenstern stood at a steering wheel, near to four helmsmen and gave commands. The senior officer and the navigator also stood there. The ship ceased to be navigated, it began to be carried to coastal rocks where it would be inevitably broken to parts. Everybody gazed at Krusenstern with hope and supplication, and he, to his horror, could not find a way out… But suddenly his eyes joyfully flashed. And the same moment he ordered in a confident voice:
- Make sails! Deck hands, to screws!, vividly, vividly, chaps! To reef thrice!

So, deck hands shaking on yards, untied topsails and reefed, despite of the strongest wind threatening every moment to throw down people on a deck or in the sea. It was necessary to keep for a yard with one hand and, pressed to it, to work with the other one on thirty-meters height at an icy wind. At last, at the most critical moment when it already seemed, that there was no rescue and the ship will be broken about coastal underwater rocks, which it came nearer and nearer, sails were made.
- The wheel to the right! Starboard! — Krusenstern commanded, and the “Hope”, having tilted, almost touching water with the board, sailed now from the coast, having left a terrible foamed tape of breakers. At the same time, fortunately, the wind changed for 90° and with the same force drove the “Hope” from the coast into the sea. Sails, made and reefed, held only for some minutes. They were torn out… Till the midnight the “Hope” helplessly rushed in authority of hurricane, then the wind began to calm down.

Damages of the ship after hurricane appeared serious, but in some hours of intensified work everything was repaired. Again sails were made and the ship continued its way to island Kiu-Siu, to Nagasaki.

On September, 28, 1804, in a month after leaving from Petropavlovsk, the “Hope” arrived to Nagasaki. In the open sea before arriving to Nagasaki gulf the Japanese fishing boat was met. Japanese who were on board the “Hope” (coming back after ship-wreck at the coast of Russia), on Krusenstern’s order, called to fishermen in Japanese, inviting them to the ship. The surprised fishermen, having heard the Japanese speech on the foreign ship, did not dare to approach closer, and then agreed to enter the vessel. They were friendly met and treated to vodka and crackers. Fishermen said, that Nagasaki’s authorities were informed four days ago by fires of the approaching of the ship, noticed by coastal inhabitants; officials would be sent to meet it. Nagasaki was very close, and the “Hope” could reach there the same day before sunset. Fishermen also mentioned that in Nagasaki there were two Dutch merchant vessels and some Chinese ones. In spite of the fact that our seamen met Japanese fishermen cordially, they kept cautiously and hastened to return to a boat.

The first visiting Japanese interpreters. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Uhtomskij A.G. In half an hour after departure of fishermen Krusenstern ordered to give a gun shot. Soon a Japanese vessel appeared with two officials and six rowers. When it came closer to the “Hope”, all our seamen reached to the right board of the ship where Japanese stuck. All wanted to see the first Japanese vessel, its flags, the arrived officials, their clothes and badges of rank.

The Japanese flags, pendants and other honours. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Petrov A.I. The first official standing in the middle of a vessel, had got two swords behind the belt. His head was naked. Having noticed to Krusenstern and other officers, he respectfully bowed and asked the following questions: “What vessel is it? Where from? What people are there? Where does it go and what for?” He was answered through one of the Japanese people brought from Russia, that it was a Russian military vessel, that arrived from Petersburg; people taking place on it were all Russians; by this ship there was an extreme envoy to Japanese Emperor with letters and gifts from the Russian Emperor; besides there were four Japanese citizens who had misfortune to suffer ship-wreck at the Russian coast; the Russian Emperor ordered to return them to their fatherland. The ship is named the “Hope” and went to Nagasaki’s harbour. The Japanese official objected that nobody had a right to enter the habour without special command of the Japanese Emperor; the exception was given only to Dutch. The Envoy Rezanov informed that Russian had the sanction of the Japanese Emperor and handed over the Japanese the following note in the Dutch language:

“From the great Emperor of all Russia to his Highness great Emperor of Japan the chamberlain Rezanov is sent by the ambassador for presenting to his Highness the gifts and for returning four his citizens. He has gone from a capital city of Petersburg on July 26 last year and has arrived to the Japanese waters on September 27 present year. He asks the Japanese government about giving a man for piloting the ship in the Nagasaki’s harbour”.

Having read a note, officials led the “Hope” in a bay and anchored it, the captain was asked not to shoot from guns and not to enter into a bay before arrival of the governor’s representatives from the town.

Conversation of the Japanese officials. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Galaktionov S.F. Having copied the sanction given to Laksman long ago, the Japanese officials were surprised with the fact that Russians used it only now, 12 years later, and informed that were waiting for arrival of Russian ship for four years. At nine o’clock in the evening in Nagasaki’s roadstead the lights appeared, the set of Japanese junks and a big vessel among them came, all covered with multi-coloured fires in paper lanterns. And this flotilla approached to the “Hope”. The representatives of the governor and ship guards arrived.

First men to enter the ship “Hope” were interpreters — the senior and two junior ones. They welcomed the captain of the ship with low bows, keeping for knees and squating according to the Japanese custom. While curiously examining the ship, they were surprised to military orders, “ticket” and to two grenadiers on guard at a doorway leading to the ambassador’s cabin. Interpreters were lead to Rezanov. They much more respectfully welcomed him with safe arrival and informed about coming of the governor’s representatives wishing to be introduced to “the great ambassador”.

Goppo or customs director on the vessel. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Cheskij I.V. Rezanov answered that would be glad to see representatives and receive them with special pleasure. Interpreters disappeared, turned to Japanese vessel and in a minute came back to the ship. They were followed by the Japanese grandee — the authorized person of the governor. The Japanese brought from Russia rushed to their knees before him and, stretching themselves out on a deck, beat their foreheads against it. The representative was amazed and asked, who they were. Having received the answer and not having told a word, he went further with the important, stately gait.

At his approach the guard made a special honourable gun reception and the drummer punched “drumming”. The grandee was frightened with unexpectedness, stopped and asked being confused: “What does it mean?” He was explained that according to Russian military naval regulations he was done honours as to the high rank person. The grandee lit up and expressed gratitude, but asked to render the same honour and to other official, authorized by the governor when he entered on board the ship. The desire was satisfied. The suite of both officials consisted of more than thirty persons. There were six interpreters knowing the Dutch language , but for translation only three of them were called up. The envoy invited representatives and interpreters to take places on a sofa. Representatives took their seats, having turned up as usual their feet under themselves. Interpreters remained standing. In a minute the Japanese attendants came in a cabin of the envoy, put on the table a small varnished boxes with smoking tubes and small brazier with burning coals for puffing at tobacco before each of them. Interpreters brought graceful varnished boxes where there were paper, brushes, ink and other writing equipment. They settled down on a floor. The junior official had got a roll of a paper where he wrote down everything that was spoken about

The same did the senior interpreters. Negotiations with representatives began.

Especially representatives were interested in a deed that Alexander I sent to Emperor of Japan. Under the order of Rezanov officials of embassy retinue solemnly brought a box in a container. The box was open, officials rose from their places, on tiptoe came to a table where the box with the letter was placed, and attentively examined a brilliant gold brocade. They asked to show them the letter itself. The envoy declared that he couldn’t open the original letter and showed only its copy.

The senior official asked:
- Whether the great ambassador agrees to obey customs of the country of the Rising sun? Rezanov answered:
- It agreed, if they are not reprehensible for greatness of Russia.

Then officials asked to call the Japanese brought from Russia, and, asking them questions, wrote down the detailed answers.

At that time the captain of the Dutch sea service came in a cabin of the envoy and asked of the officials’ sanction for Dutch executive director managing the Dutch trading affairs and a trading station, general Deff, to enter the Russian ship and to see the Russian great ambassador.

General Deff arrived with delegation but did not dare to leave the Japanese vessel and enter the “Hope” without a permission of the senior Japanese official . He waited about two hours and, at last, decided to remind of himself. Having received the sanction, general Deff appeared in a cabin. He welcomed the ambassador and introduced him the commander of the Dutch ship and his secretary in French. Rezanov kindly answered his greetings.

General Deff did not treat with respect to the present officials. One of the senior interpreters reminded him immediately about it pushing him to his side having told the following:
- Mister Deff, bow!

General Deff instantly addressed to officials, with his arms palm to palm, bowed so low that practically touched a deck. The same was done by his secretary and the captain, baron Palet, who arrived with him.

Russian seamen and embassy officials were extremely amazed to servility of Dutch, whose pride and arrogance were well known in the East India and at the islands of the Great ocean. There they seemed to be misters and lords, but here, in Japan, looked like slaves.

When Dutch bowed to the Japanese grandees, junior interpreters still laid on a deck before officials. At the same time the senior interpretor cried:
- Chief Deff, welcome the great mister!

After that general Deff and all Dutch, holding for knees, continued to bow, while it was not permitted by the senior official for them to rise. While Dutchs welcomed the Japanese officials, their senior of them addressed to the envoy with the following words:
- Mister ambassador! Are our customs strange to You? But any country has their own traditions, and we consider Dutch to be our friends for a long time and this is the proof of their kind favour to us. Are you ready to follow this custom?
- No! — Rezanov answered. — I respect the Japanese nation too much to start our friendship and work with such trifles. And your customs are not surprising for me at all. But we have got different ones, and they are also followed by no means.

Then officials started speaking about weapon. They declared that Russian vessel will receive the sanction to enter the Nagasaki harbour only under a condition to give up gunpowder, guns and all fire-arms, sables and swords, and only one sable may be permitted for the ambassador.

Rezanov knew about such Japanese laws for foreign vessels and agreed to give up all weapon, except for swords of officers and guns his personal guards. Japanese, however, were not satisfied with it and mentioned the Dutch, as an example, who were not given such a right, except general Deff . He was given a sword when he visited the emperor as the ambassador only once a year.

After long negotiations with Japanese Rezanov told:
- I hope that representatives will transfer my reasons to the governor who, probably, will find my requirements fair.

Japanese promised to deliver the answer within three days, but the ambassador asked to allow him to enter the ship into the harbour for other day, as the vessel, injured during a typhoon, was not capable of being in the open sea for a long time.

Saying goodbye to representatives of the governor, the envoy asked them to send fresh supplies. The other day early in the morning the governor sent provisions to the ship. Japanese refused to take money, referring to the order of the governor. About the midday a Japanese vessel decorated with flags appeared in the bay. It went to the direction of the “Hope” accompanied by the whole flotilla of small boats. There were representatives from the governor on them, arriving for the further negotiations. The interpretors arrived earlier, expressed a desire for the envoy to meet them but Rezanov refused to do it:
- I cannot do it, for my rank is so great, I could do such an honour for personally the governer, only with sign of my respect for him as to the representative of the higher authority.

Interpretors left with this answer and soon returned with representatives of the governor. Having come to the ambassador, they put chairs by themselves and pointed to his place. Rezanov thanked them politely, but declared that his armchair might not be occupied by anybody.

At last, having placed themselves after the first greetings, officials informed that the governor with special respect for the Russian ambassador allowed to all officers to keep their swords and, for guards of the envoy, guns. The envoy asked to thank the governor, having added that “he expected no other answer from the grandee of such a rank”. Rezanov also declared that the authentic letter, signed by the Russian Emperor, would be handed personally to the Japanese Emperor with his own hands, and to the governor — only a copy from the original with the translation into the Japanese language.

This document was brought by one of the embassy secretaries, and Rezanov, having lifted as a token of respect a roll of paper up to a level of his head, handed it to Japanese representatives. Having risen with their places, they accepted it with respectful bows and declared that the governor would send it with the courier to Ieddo.

Then Dutch, as well as on the eve, were invited to enter and again repeated their ceremony with bows. Genaral Deff that time was with his sword.

Mr. Deff told the envoy that to leave Desima any time he should ask the sanction as favour which, however, cost sixteen thalers. Once when he went with the captain out of the city one day cost four hundred thalers for him. It was necessary to pay for the guard accompaning them.

Then Japanese took gunpowder, shells, guns and broadswords from a crew. In the evening, after departure of officials, seventy Japanese boats approached the “Hope”. Having taken the ship on a tow, they led it for 5 kms to the island Papenberg where it anchored. It was more safe here than in the open sea; Japanese promised to bring a vessel even closer to city as soon as the Chinese vessels would leave the sea. Under the Japanese laws it was forbidden for ships of two nations to be in one place in the sea at the same time.

To go ashore was allowed to nobody, it was forbidden to buy anything from Japanese. They surrounded the ship with guard boats where there were up to five hundred guards. However, officials visiting the “Hope” daily assured that all these formalities would end, as soon as the courier would return from Ieddo. Nevertheless, the number of guard vessels increased and increased. On October, 16 there arrived one more flotilla counting fifty sailing ships, and Japanese explained that it was not a guard but an demonstration of honour of the great Empire. From the place the “Hope” was anchored the city was not visible, it was possible to see only huts and villages.

In the evening of that day two more officials arrived to the “Hope”. One of them was the important inspector from Ieddo. They appeared to be much more talkative and more cheerful than those who had come earlier. They started to ask about the sizes of Russia, about the lands it owns, about the states which it borders. Geographical maps and the globe were brought, where they were shown America, Kamchatka, the lands bordering on China, Persia, Turkey and the European states.

The inspector looking at the globe and rotating it in hands, tried to find something on it but he could not. Having addressed to the ambassador, he asked:
- And where is Japan here?

Rezanov pointed to a place occupied with Japan.

The inspector was delighted, smiling, handed the globe to the comrade, showing with a finger on the Japanese islands, and exclaimed:
- Nippon! Nippon! Nippon!

Having asked, whether Japan was correctly plotted on the globe as a country, officials and Japanese, accompanied them, exclaimed that it was so small in comparison with other countries, especially with Russia and China, then embarrassed, they said goodbye and left ashore.

The other day, on October, 17, Chinese ships were off. The “Hope” was led beyond Papenberg, it was an order to give an anchor in 7 kms from the city, not far from imperial fortress. Japanese promised to move the ship even closer to the city after Dutch ships would leave.

After long negotiations Japanese granted a request of fallen ill Rezanov — allowed him to walk along a coast. For this purpose they fenced off a small space in 54 m of length and 21 m of width. They also built summer-house of bamboo and post guards around it. On October, 29 officials again arrived to the “Hope”. With ceremonies and “great politeness” they accompanied the envoy ashore under an escort of twenty sailing ships with troops. The place appeared to be extremely uncomfortable for walking: dusty, without a shadow. Soon the envoy refused from those walks and did not go ashore.

On November, 8 Dutch ships left Nagasaki. On an order of the governor the ship was lead on a tow for imperial sentries where it anchored.

Illness of the ambassador increased; the governor promised to give him a premise on a coast. Its furnishing started. It was a place opposite to the Dutch trading station where Megasaki fish market was located. The site was surrounded with a bamboo fence both from the seaside, and from Desima with the aim to prevent any relations of the embassy mission with anybody.

The image of the Japanese guard house. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Skotnikov E.O. The envoy’s house consisted of nine rooms separated from each other by paper partitions and screens. Four shops were located in a court yard, and two more — out. The place was surrounded with a gulf from three sides; the fourth was enclosed with of bamboo paling with 3 meters in height. A gate leading into water, was locked from both sides. The gulf against a house was fenced with paling in two lines at a distance of 106 m for ships not to come closer. Guardrooms full of soldiers were located on both sides. The sea official was responsible for the external key, the overland officer — for the internal one. Other gate opened in a lane which led to the city. At that place there were two more guardrooms: police and military. Besides on a mountain there were guard houses with pickets so that it was possible to see everything that took place below.

The island Desima, where Dutchs lived, was separated from an ambassadorial premise by a gulf. At the beginning of December the furnishing of an ambassadorial house was over, and on December, 17 Rezanov with the big solemnity moved to a coast. That day since early morning Nagasaki bay had a celebratory kind, all gulf was filled with set of ships and the boats decorated with flags, armies were placed at the seaside.

Vessel of prince Hingodzina on which the Russian Envoy has gone from the ship on coast. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Cheskij K.V. About the midday a huge, decorated Japanese vessel appeared -the personal two-deck junk of the feudal prince Hizenski. Walls and bulk-heads of cabins were covered with the best black japan, mahogany gangways were polished as a mirror, decks were covered with expensive carpets. Not only doors and windows, but also decks were decorated with expensive fabrics. A lower deck was upholstered with lilac silk wall-paper with the white embroidered arms; the top part of a vessel was decorated with multi-coloured fabrics with the weaved gold and silk flowers and the arms. For the ambassador with his retinue and for the major Japanese high officials in a stern part of a ship a pavilion was placed, all was made of expensive fabric with especially embroidered flowers, birds and the arms. Having come into a junk Rezanov ordered to put two grenadiers at an entrance of the pavilion and to raise the ambassador’s flag with two-headed eagle in the middle.

On the coast the ambassador was met by officials. They on behalf of the governor welcomed him on the Japanese land and wished the quickest recovery. But hardly Rezanov with his retinue came in the premise as a gate was locked and nobody was let out. The envoy was surrounded with attention and honour, but in reality it was a captivity of honour. Japanese tried to disguise it with their politeness and the reference to ancient traditions.

At that time the new governor arrived from Ieddo. But in view of Russian embassy’s arrival the previous one did not leave for the capital. In Nagasaki there were two governors at the same time.

Meantime our seamen lived at the ship that was brought even closer to city on December, 23. It was the fifth parking since the arrival to Nagasaki. During a way due to a typhoon the “Hope” suffered significant ruins, it was necessary to repair a vessel. Japanese delivered to Krusenstern all necessary materials, again having refused from any payment.

For the whole period of staying our seamen could not leave ashore, had no even the right to go on boats about the ship. Only astronomers were permitted to go ashore for their observations. Japanese all time kept them at their sight. As soon as a rowing vessel floated to an observatory, the whole Japanese fleet consisting of ten-fifteen ships removed from anchors and saw off the Russian boat up to coast and back. Russian seamen wished to get acquainted with the Dutchs who were also in the same situation of captivity on the ships, but it was not allowed to them. Moreover, it was forbidden even to send letters home with a Dutch vessel leaving to Batavia. Only to the envoy it was allowed to write the brief report to Alexander I about a safe sailing, and the governor demanded to copy this report for him.

The Japanese interpreters in a lap before the official. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Galaktionov S.F. Soon the Japanese officials arrived to the “Hope” to carry gifts to the Emperor and his royal court. To carry big mirrors it was necessary to fasten two ferries and, having done a flooring from boards, covered it with bast mats, mates and red cloth.

Krusenstern was greatly surprised, having found out, that mirrors would be carried to Ieddo on hands. It was necessary at least sixty people for one mirror, and they should be changed in short periods. They were explained that for the Japanese Emperor there wasn’t anything impossible. They were told that two years ago Chinese Emperor presented the alive elephant to the Japanese Master. It was also carried on hands from Nagasaki to Ieddo.

The envoy and his retinue had to live in a honourable imprisonment for four months, before the very departure from Japan. Only occasionally Rezanov could see our seamen and director of Dutch trading station, Mr. Deff. Suspicious Japanese never left Mr. Deff confidentially with the envoy. Rezanov, however, did not waste time and tried to spend it with maximum advantage. He continued learning Japanese very hard, he started doing it during travel with one of the Japanese, being on board of the “Hope”. It was Mr. Kheb-Kiselyov, All the way he was close to Rezanov, helped him to study the Japanese language, to make vocabulary. As a result of this teamwork two manuscripts (“the Brief Russian-Japanese manual” and the dictionary containing more than five thousand words) appeared and they were planned to be presented to Navigation school in Irkutsk later. In the foreword to the work he wrote addressing to Alexander I: “Humbly I bring to your Imperial Highness the Dictionary and the Manual to mastering of letters and grammatic rules of the Japanese language, being written by me during my voyage. Japanese accompanying me, whose language I was training, were commoners; the words, representing the abstract concepts, were beyond of their understanding that is why my work could not be treated as perfect; but if it can be used for sciences and trade at any extent, it will be especially rewarded”. Later manuscripts were issued by the Academy of sciences.

On March, 30 at last, so long expected official from Ieddo arrived who was named by Japanese “the great dignitary Ito”. The first audience was appointed to April, 4. That day Rezanov with all ambassadorial retinue was transported in the Japanese vessel to the city. At a coast he was welcomed by the governor’s representatives with a guard of honour. Armies were formed up along the streets. However, there were no people anywhere, nobody was let out. At the coast a rich palanquium was ready for the ambassador; he was carried by eight porters.

It was Rezanov in this palanquium with the Imperial letter. Secretaries of embassy and other retinue went on foot.

Rezanov made a condition to welcome the Emperor’s authorized person in an European manner. Japanese agreed with a difficulty.

Faces of Japanese. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Maslovskij P.I. In a palace appointed for negotiations, the embassy mission was met by a set of interpreters. In a reception the envoy and his retinue were offered tea and tobacco tubes. Then the governor’s official with the senior interpreter asked Rezanov to pass in a room for meetings. The ambassadorial retinue was left in a reception, and Rezanov accompanied by one of the embassy’s secretary carrying the Imperial letter, followed the escort.

The ambassador passed the whole suite of rooms full of officials, and, at last, reached up the audience-hall. Before entering there, he took the letter from hands of the secretary accompanying him and then came in alone. The imperial representative Ito with two governors on his sides sat here. After mutual bows and greetings Rezanov sat down to his place. The Great dignitary Ito started to speak. As he slowly pronounced separate words, the interpreters respectfully sitting on a floor with their heads inclined, started looking at Rezanov with a surprise and anxiety and, when Ito finished his speech, translated his words with a confusion.

The Emperor’s answer brought from Ieddo, was as follows: “the Master of Japan is extremely surprised with arrival of Russian embassy mission; the Emperor cannot receive the embassy mission, and doesn’t need the correspondences and trade relations with Russians and asks the ambassador to leave Japan”.

Rezanov, having changed in his face, told:
- I am surprised with such an impertinence! Could anybody forbid to write to my sovereign who demonstrated even more honour to His Kubossky Highness, rather than he could have expected. They are both emperors but who is more powerful is not for us to decide. However, they do not need our bargaining and on the part of my monarch it was a favour to Japan which followed from the Tsar’s desire to eliviate Your Emperor’s predicaments (disadvantages connected with Japan-island location) . But don’t they think to treat Russians the same way as Portugueses?

Interpreters translated Rezanov’s answer, and he attentively checked the translation and corrected them in Japanese.

Then one of the governors, Khida-Bungo-no-Kami-Sama, answered:
- Tell to the ambassador, that he is excited today and that it is better to postpone a session for the other day.
- With great pleasure! — answered Rezanov and left the audience-hall.

The other day the audience passed calmer. Dignitaries spoke:
- The emperor cannot receive the embassy mission and its gifts because, according to Japanese customs, he should answer the same way, but it is impossible, as already for two hundred years it is set that Japanese do not leave anywhere; trading with other peoples is forbidden according to their national laws; but if a general rule exists for foreign ships not to enter their ports, Russians cannot take it as referring to themselves — no ship is allowed to reach the Japanese coast.

Rezanov answered:
- These laws are known to us, the Emperor of Russia doesn’t demand the mutual embassy.

Then he asked how to act towards Japanese who would suffer a disaster in Russian waters; whether it is possible to expect receiving a friendly aid and supply for Russian money in case of calamity?
- We’ll speak about it tomorrow,- answered Japanese officials.

At the third appointment both parts agreed to give written answers to all mentioned questions. Meanwhile, the “Hope”, on the grounds of the imperial decree was supplied with provisions free-of-charge for two months. Moreover two thousand sacs with salt were given out for the crew. The maintenance of the crew for six and a half months of staying in Japan and the ship materials which have been given out for different needs, were put on the account of the Emperor “in gratitude for the hospitality rendered to Japanese in Russia”. Moreover, on his command, gifts were made: two thousand silk carpets for officers and hundred bags to rice weighting 50,5 kg each for the crew.

At last, on April, 16 Rezanov received a letter with the answer of the Japanese government and its translation. It was said there: “During ancient times the ships of all nations freely came to Japan, and Japanese themselves visited another countries. But then one of emperors bequeathed to the successors not to let out Japanese from the empire and to receive only Dutchs. Since that time many foreign cities and countries tried to start friendly relations with Japan, but these proposals were always rejected due to established ban, and It was rather dangerous to start friendly relations with the unknown country based on the unequal rights. Thirteen years ago Russian ship under the command of Lacksman arrived to Japan. Nowadays another one appears here with the envoy of great Emperor of Russia. The first has been met mistrustfully, the second one — rather friendly. The Japanese Master is ready to do everything that does not contradict to empire’s law system. The powerful Sovereign sends an envoy and a set of precious gift. Having accepted them, the Japanese Master, according to customs of the country, should send an embassy mission to the Russian Emperor with such valuable gifts. But there is a formal prohibition to inhabitants and ships to leave Japan.. On the other hand, Japan is not so rich to give back equivalent gifts. Thus, the Japanese Master has no opportunity to accept neither the envoy, nor gifts. Japan has no essential needs, and, consequently, foreign masterpieces cannot be useful for it; the excessive luxury should not be encouraged…”

Besides a condition had been put in for Russian ships not to arrive for Japan and if the Japanese vessel was broken at the Russian coast, to transfer saved Japanese to Dutchs for their delivery home. It was also forbidden to buy something from Japanese. By the end of the letter the Emperor asked the envoy “to leave the country out of respect to ancient traditions, from his side as a token of gratitude for saving Japanese sailors he asks to accept as a gift supplies and all necessary things before leaving”.

Such was an answer of the Japanese government being stable in its decision to keep former isolation.

N. Rezanov made a memorandum to the Japanese government in connection with refusal in an establishment of trade relations:

“I, who have underwritten His Emperor Highness Alexander 1-st actual chamberlain and gentleman Nikolay Rezanov, declare to the Japanese government:

  1. That during my staying in Nagasaki I, by the name of His Emperor Majesty, have asked the Japanese Sovereign about the trading to which the Japanese government gave a permission in 1792 to Mr. Lacksman and then due to intrigues of minister… changed the word and gave up.
  2. That act has forced me to show the Japanese government that the Russian Emperor needs not so many ways to settle those rules in the Empire which are demanded the respect to neighbouring friendship of such a high person as of the most gracious the All-Russia Emperor.
  3. It is known to me, that a trouble between two empires has taken place against the will of Tenzin-Kubossky Highness, but only as a result of the mentioned minister’s cunnings. To stop unfavourable consequences I demand, that…, as the infringer of the public order , has been deprived of his position, openly punished, and that the Japanese royal court by means of the Dutch trading station has delivered immediately to St.-Petersburg to the most gracious my Sovereign an apology, at the same time has appointed a port at the Matmai where it would be possible for citizens of both countries to meet for trading, two places for establishment of the Russian trading station, promising the Japanese empire, that having settled the tender to pleasure of both powers, the Christian religion will not be performed by any external signs also all instructions of the Japanese empire will be strictly observed, that I have proved by my six-months staying in Japan .
  4. That the Japanese did not extend its possessions further the northern extremity of island Matmai, so far as all grounds and waters to the north belong to my Sovereign.
  5. The Japanese government should treat my moderation as my respect for a high person of His Tenzin-kubossky Highness.
  6. Otherwise, if any response to St.-Petersburg is not delivered and the idler… is not punished, the Japanese government cannot expect any other thing as that secondary disrespect will force me to take those measures which will be disastrous for people and losses will be also irretrievable”.

The signature is absent. This document will be kept. Its essential elements are as follows: . F. Gl. Archive, 1-7.1802. .31. Item 37. . 286-287. A copy. Not earlier on March, 23, 1805.

The next day, having said goodbye to Nagasaki’s Japanese, the envoy left home.

It was the end of Rezanov’s diplomatic mission. Some people explain a failure of embassy mission by fervour and arrogance of the envoy; others see the reason in intrigues of Mr. Deff, director of the Dutch trading station, who was scared of Russian competition and secretly used all efforts to prevent Russia from settlement of the diplomatic and trading relations with Japan.

After almost seven-mouths staying in Nagasaki on April, 18, 1805 the “Hope” early in the morning weighed an anchor and left in the high sea. Up to an exit from a bay it was seen off by a set of Japanese junks.

Krusenstern’s intention to come back to Kamchatka not by the high ocean, but via Japanese sea, was not so pleasant to Japanese.

Image Aion - the inhabitant of island Ezo. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Skotnikov E.O. Interpreters on behalf of the Japanese government tried to dissuade in every possible way the Russian captain from this intention. They assured that to float via the unexplored Japanese sea is very difficult: Sangarski strait between the islands Nippon and Hokkaido is very narrow, all covered with reefs and is extremely dangerous with the strong current and the constant fogs prevailing in the northern part of the Japanese sea and in the strait itself. At the last moment of the “Hope” staying in Nagasaki the governor sent the envoy the letter where he notified that Russian ship is forbidden to come nearer henceforth to the Japanese coast. Despite of it, Krusenstern all the same decided to devote three months for research of those places which studied Laperuz insufficiently.

He knew that no one of the European seafarers determined an exact geographical position of all Japanese islands, the most part of the coast of Korea, all western coast of island Iesso, southeast, east and northwest coast of the Sakhalin; moreover, description of the gulfs niva and Patience coasts demanded checking and the newest, more exact and detailed description as for 160 years since the time of their discovery could have changed greately. By virtue of all these reasons Krusenstern intended to survey southwest and northwest parts of the Japanese coast and Sangarski strait, which width, according to the best European maps, was more than 180 kilometers, and trusting Japanese — only two kilometers. Besides Krusenstern decided to investigate the western coast of island Iesso, east and northwest coast of the Sakhalin, and also assumed to send long boat in the waters separating Sakhalin from coast of the continent of Asia to be convinced, whether they are passable, and to determine a position of a mouth of the river Amur. At last, he will plan a research of the Kuriles. The significant part of this huge plan was executed, though not quite faultless.

Having left Nagasaki the “Hope” got way to Korea strait, keeping near the coast and determining a geographical position of prominent localities. In Korea strait between Japan and the island Tsushima, located in the middle of a strait, the expedition investigated its part which it a passage of Krusenstern.

Krusenstern made measurements of depths and temperatures of water, studied quality of a ground and declination of a magnetic needle, a direction and force of a flow.

Whereas Krusenstern’s predecessor Laperuz didn’t mention island Tsushima, our seamen investigated carefully this island and a coast of Japan opposite to it.

Continuing the way and making inspection of Nippon’s coast close to Sangarski strait, Krusenstern gave a name “Russians” to one of capes. Both the cape, and its vicinities were rather picturesque. In the northern part there was an enormous gulf with fine anchor parking, on the western side — the big falls, near the cape — high beautiful mountains with snow tops, in valleys — gentle greenery.

There was a small town not far from the cape with a roadstead for small ships. The valley about the town was perfectly processed. Wonderful planting and woods was the beauty of the place.

When the “Hope” was noticed, four oar boats was sent to meet it. In each of them there were thirty well armed men. Krusenstern ordered to sound the alarm, to charge guns with case-shot and to call all the crew, armed with guns, to a main deck. The Japanese boats, having reached to the “Hope”, passed two times around it and returned.

Having sailed a little bit farther, Russian saw a new picturesque cape and a cone-shaped mountain nearby. Krusenstern called a cape by the name of Gamalej, the talented professor of the Naval college, and a mountain — by the name of a scientist Tilezius.

Sangarski was the following to the north cape. Opposite cape at the coast of island Iesso Krusenstern called a cape of the Hope in commemorating his ship. The width of Sangarski channel was determined in 16,5 kms (largest), instead of in 180 as it was plotted on the European maps. Then, not leaving Sangarski channel in the ocean, Krusenstern, investigated all western part of island Iesso and the channel itself, determining positions of newly opened gulfs and capes. Krusenstern simultaneously gave them the names: a bay of Golenischev — Kutuzov, a cape of Novosiltseva, a mountain of Rumovskogo, a bay of Stroganov, a bay of Shishkov, a bay and a cape of Rumjantseva (in the northern part of Iesso).

As the “Hope” came in the newly opened Rumjantsev’s bay, natives in boats moved to meet it. They didn’t come on board , and, having made a round, went back. When the ship anchored, they appeared again. Having climbed up a vessel, they kneelt, put both hands on heads and, passing them over a face and a body, bowed very low. Natives brought a full boat of very tasty herrings. Krusenstern presented them different knickknacks.

The next day Japanese with the officer visited the “Hope”. The officer seemed very much excited and disturbed by the arrival of a Russian ship. The officer suggested the commander to leave immediately from a gulf, threatening in case of his disobedience with the Japanese fleet which, as he said, “will not be slow to carry the ‘Hope’ for parts”. At the moment he inflated cheeks, puffed, sentencing “boom”, “boom”, than made laugh very Russian seamen. Krusenstern promised him to leave, as soon as the fog would dissipate. The officer calmed down.

Faces of aions. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Skotnikov E.O. Japanese merchants and fishermen, natives of Iesso a part Ine’s tribe also visited a ship. Merchants brought tubes esthetically made of walrus’s bones, varnished bowls, porcelain vases and other trifles. Fishermen brought herring that was changed for buttons, giving eighty or hundred of herrings for one copper button.

The main chief of the Tatar settlement on northern coast of Sakhalin. The atlas to round-the-world voyage of Captain Krusenstern. Skotnikov E.O. From here the “Hope” made her way to Sakhalin. In the gulf Aniva the “Hope” threw an anchor near a merchant Japanese vessel. Krusenstern, Rezanov and several seamen departed to this vessel. Beyond all expectation, they were met kindly. It was, however, seen that the Japanese seamen behaved cautiously, being rather afraid of the officers lodged at the coast for a supervision of native’s trade with Japanese merchants.

In the gulf Aniva known with a surprising abundance of salmons, travellers could observe the same phenomenon, as they had seen near Kamchatka: waters teemed with fish that it was difficult to row. With the tide fish was simply scooped with buckets. During parking whales and cachalots floated around the “Hope”. Aboriginals of Sakhalin are the same Ines, as that of inhabiting Iesso. Their good nature, honesty and modesty made the best impression on Krusenstern. When they were made gifts for delivered fish, they took them in hands, admired them and then returned. It was difficult to explain them that these gifts were their property since that moment.

Ines reminded both Japanese and the Siberian natives by the style of their clothes and design of dwellings. They wore fur clothes-malitsy -and, it is strange enough, the Japanese cone-shaped hats.

Having finished the description of the gulf Aniva, Krusenstern continued his works on sea survay of the east coast of Sakhalin up to the cape of Patience. Having met on May, 26 near this cape a plenty of ice, he was forced to stop a survey and hastened to return to Kamchatka. Passing on May, 30 a circuit of the Kuriles, he discovered groups of isles which he named “Stone traps”. Here the ship “Hope” hardly was not lost, having met such a strong flow, that with the speed of 8 miles per hour it was carried back on an underwater reef. Krusenstern got out to Okhotskoe sea with great difficulty. Here he waited for the coming storm and again left to the high ocean. After four-day sailing, often among blocks of ice , Krusenstern entered the Peter and Paul harbour on June, 5.

Here the envoy Rezanov passed to a vessel of Russian-American company the “Maria” which sailed him to the main base of the company located on island Kadiak, near Alaska. The main board of the Company charged him to order the organization of local management by colonies and crafts. The scientist and naturalist Mr. Langsdorf left with him, as he wished to investigate the nature and resources of the fantastic country named Russian America.

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